Friday, April 7, 2017

18C Indigenous Women in Latin American Families - Caste Paintings - Racial Mixes Determined Status, Privileges, & Obligations

1763 Caste Painting Series by Miguel Cabrera (c 1695-1768) De Español y Mulata; Morisca
Status in the social hierarchy of much of the 18C Middle & South Americas status depended on skin color & intermarriages between social groups.
1763 Caste Painting Series by Miguel Cabrera (c 1695-1768) De Castizo y Mestiza; Chamizo
There was an exhibit in New York City, "New World Orders: Casta Painting & Colonial Latin America" at the Americas Society in 1996. Shown there were intimate, family portrayals of the racial mixing of the melting pot of the Americas forged from New World colonialism & Spanish Catholicism. Generally Latin America is defined as the region of the Americas where Romance languages (i.e., those derived from Latin) – particularly Spanish and Portuguese, & variably French – are primarily spoken.
1763 Caste Painting Series by Miguel Cabrera (c 1695-1768) De Chino cambujo y d’India; Loba
And then, a couple of years ago, I read that the curator of that exhibit Ilona Katzew's book called Casta Painting: Images of Race in 18th-Century Mexico. It was published by the Yale University Press, in New Haven in 2004, and focused on the paintings of Miguel Cabrera c 1695-1768.
1763 Caste Painting Series by Miguel Cabrera (c 1695-1768) De Español y Albina; Torna atrás
Katzew used this primary source to help explain the need for the caste system in Mexico. In 1770 Francisco Antonio Lorenzana, a Spanish prelate and archbishop of Mexico from 1766 to 1772, remarked on the diversity of Mexico's population as opposed to Spain's: "Two worlds God has placed in the hands of our Catholic Monarch, and the New does not resemble the Old, not in its climate, its customs, nor its inhabitants; it has another legislative body, another council for governing, yet always with the end of making them alike: In the Old Spain only a single caste of men is recognized, in the New many and different."
1763 Caste Painting Series by Miguel Cabrera (c 1695-1768) De Español y d’India; Mestisa
Colonial Mexico was home to a vast array of ethnoracial groups. In the first years following the Spanish conquest, most people fell into one of 3 distinct ethnoracial categories. They were either indigenous Nahuas, peninsular Spaniards, or Africans (both enslaved and free). Sexual contact between Spaniards, Indians, & Blacks occurred from the 16th-century on, resulting in a growing group of racially-mixed people known collectively as castas-a term used by Spaniards & creoles (Spaniards born in the Americas) to distinguish themselves from racially-mixed people. By the end of the 18th century, about 1/4 of the population of Mexico was racially mixed.
1763 Caste Painting Series by Miguel Cabrera (c 1695-1768) De Español y Mestiza, Castiza
A series of depictions of families called casta paintings emerged as a way of illustrating the proper classification of the various mixing of races that determined rank in that society. For historians, they are a treasure trove of costumes & home settings & even shops & employments. But they are much more than that.
1763 Caste Painting Series by Miguel Cabrera (c 1695-1768) De Español y Torna atrás; Tente en el aire
Maria Elena Martinex's Genealogical Fictions: Limpieza de Sangre, Religion and Gender in Colonial Mexico (Stanford University Press, 2008) based on her 2002 PhD dissertation at the Univeristy of Chicago, is a fine in-depth study of the interplay between the Spanish concept of limpieza de sangre (purity of blood) & colonial Mexico's sistema de castas, a hierarchical system of social classification based primarily on ancestry. She examines how this notion surfaced amid socio-religious tensions in early modern Spain, & was initially used against Jewish & Muslim converts to Christianity. It was then exported to the Americas, adapted to colonial conditions, & employed to create & reproduce identity categories according to descent. Martínez also examines how the state, church, Inquisition, & other institutions in colonial Mexico used the notion of purity of blood over time to shape the region's patriotic & racial ideologies.
1763 Caste Painting Series by Miguel Cabrera (c 1695-1768) De Indio y Barcina; Zambuigua
In these family scenes, husbands & wives from different races are shown with their offspring & ranked according to their place in Mexico's social structure.
1763 Caste Painting Series by Miguel Cabrera (c 1695-1768) De Lobo y d’India, Albarazado
These paintings were very popular in 18C Spain as well as other parts of Europe. Peru & the French colonies also classified society according to racial mixes.
1763 Caste Painting Series by Miguel Cabrera (c 1695-1768) De Negro y d’India, China cambuja.
In colonial Latin America the racial caste system was so overt that a baby's social identity as white, indigenous, African, or mixed was officially assigned in the church baptismal register.
1763 Caste Painting Series by Miguel Cabrera (c 1695-1768) Indios gentiles (Heathen Indians)
According to the European racial notions of the day in Spain, "purity of blood" was considered a virtue; consequently, Africans and Indians are nobly rendered.
1763 Caste Painting Series by Miguel Cabrera (c 1695-1768)
Mixed-race couples depicted in these paintings are clearly poorer, wearing shabbier clothes in starker circumstances, than their purer-blooded ancestors. Spaniards & their Indian or African brides sport rich European costumes, while Lobo- Mestizo couples wear plain or even ragged dress.
1763 De Español y d’India; Mestisa
Paintings depicting exact mixes of races were commissioned by on-site colonial administrative & religious officials in the 1700s, often meant to serve as instructive souvenirs to be sent back to Spain. Because these paintings were a form of propaganda & social control generated by the colonial elite, it is impossible to tell from their content how these subordinate groups of people understood, accomodated, or resisted the process of domination by the colonial administrations.
1763 De Mestizo y d’India; Coyote
Europeans did not regard these casta paintings as art objects but as proof of their wealth & power & as insturctive ethnographic illustrations.
José de Alcíbar, De Negro y De India Sale Lovo
These casta paintings were depictions by the colonial intruder trying to establish a means of retaing power using New World gene pools that were quickly merging.
Chino or Albino = Spanish and Morisca
Colonial powers assigned different castes with different privileges & obligations. These visual representations made it easy for all to understand, whether they could read or not.
Cambur = African, Spanish, + Indian
"Casta" is Spanish for caste. These "casta paintings" are incredibly frank documents of the race-based social hierarchy that existed in colonial Latin America during the 17th & 18th century.
Mestizo = Spanish + Indian
On the other hand, however, these paintings also depict a rather harmonious coexistence of Indian, Spaniard & Black, in 18th-century Mexico.
Mestizo = Spanish + Indian
Some of the terms denoting the mix of races had zoological meanings.The lowest among the mixes of races were often denigrated with animal names like Lobo (Wolf) & Coyote.
Mestizo = Spanish + Indian
As the mixing further dilutes the pure gene pools, negative terms such as “Tente en el aire” meaning "throw in the air" suggest something that is worth nothing.
Mulato = Spanish and African
Many of the names/terms used to describe the identity of an individuals racial heritage within the casta paintings were made up of common slang terms. Some of these terms are still in use today, mulatto is has the widest usage.
Sambahigo = Cambujo + Indian or Spanish or African
Mexican Castes:
Albarazado = Cambujo + Mulatto
Albino/Ochavado = Spanish + African or Morisco
Allí te estás = Chamizo + Mestiza
Barcino = Albarazado + Mutlata
Barnocino = Albarazado + Mestiza
Calpamulato = Zambaigo + Loba
Cambujo = Zambaigo + Indian
Cambur = African, Spanish, + Indian
Cambuto/a = Spanish + African
Castizo = Spanish + Mestizo (Spanish & a person 1/2 Spanish & 1/2 indigenous)
Chamizo = Coyote + Indian
Chino or Albino = Spanish + Morisca
Cimarrón = African, Spanish, + Indian
Coyote = African, Spanish, + Indian
Coyote = Indian + Metiza
Jíbaro/Jabaro = Lobo + China /Spanish, Indian, or African
Lobo = Indian, African + Salta atrás
Mestizo = Spanish + Indian
Morisco or Cuarterón = Spanish + Mulatto
Mulato = Spanish + African
Negro fino = African + Spanish
No te entiendo = Tente en el aire + Mulatta
Nometoques = Parts of many races, including African
Pardo = Spanish, Indian, + African
Prieto = African + Spanish
Salta atrás/Tornatras = Spanish, African, + Albina
Sambahigo = Cambujo + Indian or Spanish or African
Spanish = Castiza + Spanish
Tente en el aire = Calpamulatto + Cambuja
Torna atrás = No te entiendo + Indian
Tresalvo = Spanish + African
Zambaigo = Lobo + Indian
Zambo = Indian + African
For Peru, Viceroy Amat King Carlos III 1770.
Castes in Peru:
Mestizo = Spaniard + Indian,
Quadroon, Quinterón = Spaniard + Mestiza or Mulatto
Mulatto = Spaniard + Black,
Quinterona, Requinterona = Spaniard + Mulatto,
Requinterona = Spaniard + Mulatto,
Cholo = Mestizo + Indian,
Chinese = Mulatto + Indian,
Chinese Quadroon = Spaniard + Chinese,
Zambo = Black + Indian, or Black + Mulatto
For Peru Viceroy Amat King Carlos III in 1770
French Colonial castes:
Sacatra = Griffe + Black,
Griffe = Black + Mulatto
Marabon = Mulatto + Griffe,
Mulatto = White + Black,
Quarteron = White + Mulatto,
Metif = White + Quarteron,
Meamelouc = White + Metif,
Quarteron = White + Meamelouc,
Sang-mele = White + Quarteron
Jose Joaquin Mangon [Mexican], Castizo = Spanish + Mestizo c 1770
Hierarchy of the Casta Paintings Miguel Cabrera, 1763
1. De Español y d’India; Mestisa
2. De Español y Mestiza, Castiza
3. De Español y Castiza, Español
4. De Español y Negra, Mulata
5. De Español y Mulata; Morisca
6. De Español y Morisca; Albina
7. De Español y Albina; Torna atrás
8. De Español y Torna atrás; Tente en el aire
9. De Negro y d’India, China cambuja.
10. De Chino cambujo y d’India; Loba
11. De Lobo y d’India, Albarazado
12. De Albarazado y Mestiza, Barcino
13 De Indio y Barcina; Zambuigua
14. De Castizo y Mestiza; Chamizo
15. De Mestizo y d’India; Coyote
16. Indios gentiles (Heathen Indians)
By José de Bustos, an artist who worked in Puebla around 1724
Although the artists creating many of the paintings in this post are unidentified, painters commissioned to work in this genre included Juan Rodriguez Juarez, Miguel Cabrera, Jose de Paex, Jose Alfaro, Ignacio Maria Barreda, Andres de Islas, Mariano Guerrero, Luis Berruecco, Ignacio de Castro, Jose de Bustos, and Jose Joaquin Magon.
By José de Bustos, an artist who worked in Puebla around 1724
Jíbaro or Jabaro = Indian, and African
Mestizo = Spanish + Indian
Detail Mestizo = Spanish + Indian
Mestizo = Spanish and Indian
Morisco = Spanish and Mulatto
Spanish = Castiza and Spanish
Spanish and Morisco = Albino
Mulato = Spanish + African
Unknown artist From Return-Backwards and Grifo, Chino c 1770
Unknown artist Peruvian Mestizo and Mestiza, Mestizo, c. 1770
De albarrado é india nace Cachimboreta
De Chamizo é india sale Cambuja
De español é india produce mestizo
De español y alvina sale negro torna atras
De español y casitza sale española
De español y mestiza Castiza
De español y morisca sale alvino
De indio y albarazada Produce Chamizo
De indio y Cambuja nace lobo torna atras
De lobo y india sale sambaiga
De mestizo e india sale coiote
De mulato y española sale morisco
De negra é india sale lobo
De negro y española sale mulato
De sambaigo é india sale albarazado
Juan Rodriguez Juarez, Es tornatrás (retrato de casta). Año ca. 1720.
Juan Rodriguez Juarez De castizo, y española, produce españa 1720
Juan Rodríguez Juárez, De Castiso y Española produce Español 1720
Juan Rodriguez Juarez De español, y de india produce mestizo 1720
Juan Rodríguez Juárez. Técnica Óleo sobre tela 1720
José de Paez. (Mexican artist, 1720-1795)